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At first, the kingdom was little more than a loose collection of towns and cities. However, at its height, the Kingdom roughly encompassed the territory of modern Israel, including the West Bank and the Gaza Strip; it extended from modern Lebanon in the north to the Sinai Desert in the south, and into modern Jordan and Syria in the east. There were also attempts to expand the kingdom into Fatimid Egypt. Its kings also held a certain amount of authority over the other crusader states, Tripoli, Antioch, and Edessa.
J.J. Thomson was born in 1856, in Cheetham Hill, Manchester in England, of Scottish parentage. Thomson's father was a successful bookseller, and this no doubt was in part responsible for Thomson's interest in science, as he would have had access to innumerable volumes devoted to the subject.