Fred Rogers

Fred Rogers
Fred Rogers, late 1960s.jpg
Rogers on the set of Mister Rogers' Neighborhood in the late 1960s
Born Fred McFeely Rogers
March 20 1928(1928-03-20)
Latrobe, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Died February 27 2003 (aged 74)
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Other names Mister Rogers
Alma mater Rollins College
Pittsburgh Theological Seminary
Occupation Children's television presenter, actor, puppeteer, singer, composer, television producer, author, educator, Presbyterian minister
Years active 1951–2001
Spouse(s) Joanne Byrd
Children 2
Signature
FredRogersSignature.png

Fred McFeely Rogers (March 20, 1928 – February 27, 2003) was an American television personality, musician, puppeteer, writer, producer, and Presbyterian minister. He was known as the creator, composer, producer, head writer, showrunner and host of the preschool television series Mister Rogers' Neighborhood (1968–2001). The show featured Rogers' kind, neighborly, avuncular persona, which nurtured his connection to the audience.

Trained and ordained as a minister, Rogers was displeased with the way television addressed children. He began to write and perform local Pittsburgh-area shows for youth. Over the course of three decades, Rogers became a television icon of children's entertainment and education.

Rogers advocated various public causes. Most memorably, Rogers testified before a U.S. Senate committee to advocate for government funding of children's television. Several buildings and artworks in Pennsylvania are dedicated to his memory, and the Smithsonian Institution displays one of his trademark sweaters as a "Treasure of American History".

Contents

Rogers believed in honesty, and that children needed to hear from adults that in times of disaster there are always caring people who act as helpers. His advice to "look for the helpers" has continued to be a comfort to all people, circulating widely following tragic news events.

Life

Main Street, Latrobe, Pennsylvania, Rogers' birthplace.
Photo of Fred Rogers as a senior in high school.

Fred McFeely Rogers was born on March 20, 1928 in Latrobe, Pennsylvania 40 miles (65 km) southeast of Pittsburgh, at 705 Main Street, the son of James and Nancy Rogers.[1] James Rogers was a very successful businessman.[2] Nancy came from a wealthy Pittsburgh family; her father, Fred McFeely, was the president of McFeely Brick, one of Latrobe’s largest businesses.[3] Nancy knitted sweaters for American soldiers from western Pennsylvania who were fighting in Europe. When Fred was born, she regularly volunteered at the Latrobe Hospital. Initially dreaming of becoming a doctor, she settled for a life of hospital volunteer work. [4]

The young Fred Rogers spent much of his free time with his maternal grandfather, who was interested in music; Rogers began to play the piano when he was five and sang along when his mother played.[5]

Rogers had a difficult childhood growing up—he had a shy, introverted personality and was overweight. In addition, he was frequently homebound after suffering bouts of asthma.[2] Rogers struggled to make friends and would frequently be bullied as a little boy for his weight, taunted as "Fat Freddy."[6] According to documentarian Morgan Neville, Rogers had a "lonely childhood...I think he made friends with himself as much as he could. He had a ventriloquist dummy, he had [stuffed] animals, and he would create his own worlds in his childhood bedroom."[6]

President George W. Bush greets Mister Rogers in the Blue Room before an early childhood education event in the East Room April 3, 2002

Rogers became much more confident as he got older. He attended Latrobe High School and was very active in extracurricular activities. he served as president of the student council, was a member of the National Honor Society, and was editor-in-chief of the yearbook; he graduated in 1946.[7] Rogers studied at Dartmouth College from 1946 until 1948 and then transferred to Rollins College in Winter Park, Florida, earning a BA in music composition in 1951.[8]

At Rollins College, Rogers met and fell in love with Oakland, Florida native Sara Joanne Byrd.[9] Fred and Joanne (as she is known) were married on June 9, 1952 and remained married until his death in 2003. They had two sons: James, in 1959, and John, in 1961.[10] Rogers graduated from Pittsburgh Theological Seminary and was ordained a minister of the United Presbyterian Church in 1963. He returned to Pittsburgh in the 1960s with his family and attended the Sixth Presbyterian Church, in the Squirrel Hill neighborhood.[11] Rogers had an apartment in New York City and a summer home on Nantucket Island in Massachusetts.[10][12]

Rogers was diagnosed with stomach cancer in December 2002. He underwent surgery on January 6, 2003, which was unsuccessful.[13] A week earlier, he had served as grand marshal of the Tournament of Roses Parade, with Art Linkletter and Bill Cosby.[14]

Rogers died on the morning of February 27, 2003, at his home with his wife by his side, less than a month before he would have turned 75.[13][15] He was interred at Unity Cemetery in Latrobe.[16]

His widow, Joanne Byrd Rogers, continued to live in Pittsburgh, where she honored her husband's memory by being an advocate for children and encouraging them to take on leadership roles.[17]

Television career

Rogers was displeased with the way television addressed children and began to write and perform local Pittsburgh-area shows for youth. In 1968, Eastern Educational Television Network began nationwide distribution of Rogers' new show, Mister Rogers' Neighborhood. Over the course of the show's three decades' run, Rogers became a television icon of children's entertainment and education.[18]

Early work

Rogers entered seminary after college but wanted to work with television.[12] In an interview with CNN, Rogers said, "I went into television because I hated it so, and I thought there's some way of using this fabulous instrument to nurture those who would watch and listen."[19] He applied for a job at NBC in New York City in 1951 and worked first as an assistant producer, and later, network floor director on musical programs including Your Lucky Strike Hit Parade and The Kate Smith Hour. He also worked on Gabby Hayes's children's show.[20]

Rogers decided that television's reliance on advertisement and merchandising kept it from educating young audiences; he left NBC and began working as a puppeteer on the local children's show The Children's Corner for Pittsburgh public television station WQED in 1954. He worked off-camera with host Josie Carey on unscripted live TV for the next seven years to develop the puppets, characters, and music—including King Friday XIII and X the Owl—that he used in his own work later.[21][22] The show won a Sylvania Award[23] for best children's show and was broadcast nationally on NBC.

Rogers studied theology at the nearby Pittsburgh Theological Seminary during his lunch breaks; however, he was uninterested in preaching and was told to continue making children's television after his ordination.[24] He worked with the University of Pittsburgh's child development and care program. Rogers consulted with child psychologist Margaret McFarland, an associate professor at the school; much of Rogers' "thinking about and appreciation for children was shaped and informed" by McFarland.[25] While filming The Children's Corner, Rogers worked side-by-side with Ernie Coombs, who served as an assistant puppeteer.[26]

In 1963, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) contracted Rogers to develop the 15-minute children's program Misterogers.[26] Fred Rainsberry, head of children's programming at the CBC, told Rogers, "Fred, I've seen you talk with kids. Let's put you yourself on the air."[27] Rogers invited Coombs to come along and work as a puppeteer on the new program.[28]

Rogers moved to Toronto[29] and the series ran for three seasons. CBC designed many of his famous set pieces: the Trolley, the Eiffel Tower, the "tree", and the "castle."[30] Rogers moved back to the United States three years later, but Coombs decided to stay in Canada, joining a new TV series called Butternut Square as a puppeteer and voice actor. Coombs later made another CBC TV children's show, Mr. Dressup, which ran from 1967 to 1996.[28]

In 1966, Rogers got the rights to his program from the CBC and moved the show to WQED in Pittsburgh, where he had worked on The Children's Corner.[31] He developed the new show for the Eastern Educational Network.[24]

Mister Rogers' Neighborhood

Rogers screens the tape replay with Betty Aberlin and Johnny Costa in 1969.
A sweater worn by Rogers, on display in the Smithsonian Institution's Museum of American History
Rogers and François Clemmons reprising their famous foot bath in 1993. The scene was a message of inclusion during an era of racial segregation.

Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, a half-hour educational children's program starring Rogers, began airing in 1968 and ran for 895 episodes. It aired on National Educational Television, which later became The Public Broadcasting Service. The last set of new episodes was taped in December 2000 and began airing in August 2001. At its peak, in 1985, eight percent of US households tuned into the show.[5] According to musical director Johnny Costa, every episode of the program began with a pan of the Neighborhood, a miniature diorama model,[32] with his jazzy improvisations interwoven between the titles.[33] "The Neighborhood consisted of two sets: the inside set (Rogers' house) and the Neighborhood of Make-Believe, which included the castle" were filmed separately.[32]

Each episode had recurring motifs:

  • Mister Rogers is seen coming home singing his theme song "Won't You Be My Neighbor?" and changing into sneakers and a zippered cardigan sweater (he noted in an interview that all of his sweaters were knitted by his mother).[34]
  • In a typical episode, Rogers might have an earnest conversation with his television audience, interact with live guests, take a field trip to such places as a bakery or a music store, or watch a short film.[35]
  • Typical video subjects included demonstrations of how mechanical objects work, such as bulldozers, or how things are manufactured, such as crayons.[36]
  • Each episode included a trip to Rogers' "Neighborhood of Make-Believe" featuring a trolley with its own chiming theme song, a castle, and the kingdom's citizens, including King Friday XIII. The subjects discussed in the Neighborhood of Make-Believe often allowed further development of themes discussed in Mister Rogers' "real" neighborhood.[37]
  • Mister Rogers often fed his aquarium fish during episodes. Rogers would always vocally announce to his audience he was feeding them because he received a letter from a young blind girl who wanted to know each time he did this.[38]
  • Typically, each week's episode explored a major theme, such as going to school for the first time.
  • Rogers would end each program by telling his viewers, "You've made this day a special day, by just your being you. There's no person in the whole world like you; and I like you just the way you are."[30]
  • At the outset, most episodes ended with a song entitled "Tomorrow," and Friday episodes looked forward to the week ahead with an adapted version of "It's Such a Good Feeling." In later seasons, all episodes ended with "Feeling."

Visually, the presentation of the show was very simple. It did not feature the animation or fast pace of other children's shows, which Rogers thought of as "bombardment."[39] Rogers' use of time on his show was a radical departure from other children's programming. Mister Rogers' Neighborhood was unhurried.[40] Rogers also believed in not acting out a different persona on camera compared to how he acted off camera, stating that "One of the greatest gifts you can give anybody is the gift of your honest self. I also believe that kids can spot a phony a mile away."[41]

Rogers composed almost all of the music on the program, over 289 songs over the course of the show.[42] Through his music, he wanted to teach children to love themselves and others, and he addressed common childhood fears with comforting songs and skits. For example, one of his famous songs explains how a child cannot be sucked down the bathtub drain as he or she will not fit. He once took a trip to the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh to show children that a hospital is not a place to fear.

Rogers frequently tackled complex social issues on his program including the assassination of Robert F. Kennedy, racism, and divorce.[43] On one notable episode, Rogers soaked his feet in a kiddie pool on a hot day alongside Officer Clemmons (François Clemmons), who was African-American. The scene was a subtle symbolic message of inclusion during a time when racial segregation in the United States was widespread.

In addition, Rogers championed children with disabilities on the show.[44] In a 1981 segment, Rogers met a young quadriplegic boy, Jeff Erlanger, who showed how his electric wheelchair worked and explained why he needed it. Erlanger and Rogers both sang a duet of the song "It's You I Like." Before the taping, Erlanger had long been a fan of the program, and his parents wrote a letter to Rogers requesting they meet. Years later, when Rogers was inducted into the Television Hall of Fame in 1999, Erlanger was a surprise guest to introduce Rogers. Rogers "leaped" out of his seat and straight onto the stage when Erlanger appeared.[45]

Rogers never explicitly mentioned his faith on the show. "He wasn’t doing that to hide his Christian identity," Junlei Li, co-director of the Fred Rogers Center, explained. "I think Fred was very adamant that he didn’t want any viewer — child or adult — to feel excluded from the neighborhood."[46]

Other television work

In 1978, while on hiatus from taping new Neighborhood episodes, Rogers hosted an interview program for adults on PBS called Old Friends...New Friends.[47] Rogers interviewed actors, sports stars, politicians, and poets, but the show was short-lived, lasting only 20 episodes.[48]

In the mid-1980s, the Burger King fast-food chain lampooned Rogers' image with an actor called "Mr. Rodney", imitating Rogers' television character. Rogers found the character's pitching fast food as confusing to children, and called a press conference in which he stated that he did not endorse the company's use of his character or likeness. Rogers made no commercial endorsements during his career, though, over the years, he acted as a pitchman for several non-profit organizations dedicated to learning. The chain publicly apologized for the faux pas and pulled the ads.[49] In contrast, Fred Rogers found Eddie Murphy's parody of his show on Saturday Night Live, "Mister Robinson's Neighborhood," amusing and affectionate.[50]

In 1994, Rogers created a one-time special for PBS called Fred Rogers' Heroes, which consisted of documentary portraits of four persons whose work helped make their communities better. Rogers, uncharacteristically dressed in a suit and tie, hosted the show in wraparound segments that did not use the "Neighborhood" set.[51]

Rogers voice-acted himself on the "Arthur Meets Mister Rogers" segment of the PBS Kids animated series Arthur.[52]

The only time Rogers appeared on television as someone other than himself was in 1996 when he played a preacher on one episode of Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman.[5]

In 1998, Rogers appeared as himself in an episode of Candid Camera as the victim of one of the show's pranks. The show's staff tried to sell him on a hotel room with no television. Rogers quickly caught on to the fact that he was being filmed for the show and surprised the show's producers by telling them he did not really need a television. Rogers was amused by his appearance on the show and by host Peter Funt's immediate recognition of him.[53]

After the September 11 terrorist attacks, Rogers taped public service announcements for parents about how to discuss tragic world news events with their children.[54]

"We at Family Communications have discovered that when children bring up something frightening, it's helpful right away to ask them what they know about it," Rogers said. "Probably what children need to hear most from us adults is that they can talk with us about anything, and that we will do all we can to keep them safe in any scary time."[54]


"When I was a boy and I would see scary things in the news, my mother would say to me, 'Look for the helpers. You will always find people who are helping.' To this day, especially in times of "disaster," I remember my mother's words and I am always comforted by realizing that there are still so many helpers – so many caring people in this world."
—Fred Rogers[55]

In 2012, following the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, as people grappled with the gravity of the situation, a Rogers quote went viral on social media, advising people during troubling times to "look for the helpers."[54] On NBC's Meet the Press program, host David Gregory read the Rogers' quote on the air and added, "May God give you strength and at least you can know there is a country full of helpers here to catch you when you feel like falling."[54]

The quote continues to circulate widely following tragic news events.

Emmys for programming

Mister Rogers' Neighborhood won four Emmy awards, and Rogers himself was presented with a Lifetime Achievement Award at the 1997 Daytime Emmys,[56] as described by Esquire's Tom Junod:

Mister Rogers went onstage to accept the award—and there, in front of all the soap opera stars and talk show sinceratrons, in front of all the jutting man-tanned jaws and jutting saltwater bosoms, he made his small bow and said into the microphone, "All of us have special ones who have loved us into being. Would you just take, along with me, ten seconds to think of the people who have helped you become who you are. Ten seconds of silence." And then he lifted his wrist, looked at the audience, looked at his watch, and said, "I'll watch the time." There was, at first, a small whoop from the crowd, a giddy, strangled hiccup of laughter, as people realized that he wasn't kidding, that Mister Rogers was not some convenient eunuch, but rather a man, an authority figure who actually expected them to do what he asked. And so they did. One second, two seconds, three seconds—and now the jaws clenched, and the bosoms heaved, and the mascara ran, and the tears fell upon the beglittered gathering like rain leaking down a crystal chandelier. And Mister Rogers finally looked up from his watch and said softly, "May God be with you" to all his vanquished children.[12]

Advocacy

Rogers became an advocate for various public causes. He testified before a U.S. Senate committee to advocate for government funding of children's television. Also, he testified in favor of fair-use television show recording (now called time shifting).

Rogers speaks to Congress in 1969 in support of PBS.

PBS funding

In 1969, Rogers appeared before the United States Senate Subcommittee on Communications. His goal was to support funding for PBS and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, in response to proposed budget cuts.[57] In about six minutes of testimony, Rogers spoke of the need for social and emotional education that public television provided. He argued that alternative television programming like his Neighborhood encouraged children to become happy and productive citizens, sometimes opposing less positive messages in the media and in popular culture. He recited the lyrics to one of his songs.[58]

The chairman of the subcommittee, John O. Pastore, was not familiar with Rogers' work and was sometimes described as impatient. However, he reported that the testimony had given him goosebumps, and declared, "I think it's wonderful. Looks like you just earned the $20 million."

VCR

During the controversy surrounding the introduction of the household VCR, Rogers was involved in supporting VCR manufacturers in court. His 1979 testimony, in the case Sony Corp. of America v. Universal City Studios, Inc., noted that he did not object to home recordings of his television programs by families in order to watch them together at a later time.[59] His testimony contrasted with the views of others in the television industry who objected to home recording or believed that VCRs should be taxed or regulated.[60]

When the case reached the Supreme Court in 1983, the majority decision considered the testimony of Rogers when it held that the Betamax video recorder did not infringe copyright.[61] The court stated that his views were a notable piece of evidence "that many [television] producers are willing to allow private time-shifting to continue" and even quoted his testimony in a footnote:

Some public stations, as well as commercial stations, program the Neighborhood at hours when some children cannot use it ... I have always felt that with the advent of all of this new technology that allows people to tape the Neighborhood off-the-air, and I'm speaking for the Neighborhood because that's what I produce, that they then become much more active in the programming of their family's television life. Very frankly, I am opposed to people being programmed by others. My whole approach in broadcasting has always been "You are an important person just the way you are. You can make healthy decisions." Maybe I'm going on too long, but I just feel that anything that allows a person to be more active in the control of his or her life, in a healthy way, is important.[59]

Legacy

Fred Rogers' death was such a significant event in Pittsburgh that most of the front page of the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette published the next day and an entire section of the paper devoted its coverage to him.[62] The Reverend William P. Barker presided over a public memorial in Pittsburgh. More than 2,700 people attended the memorial at Heinz Hall, including former Good Morning America host David Hartman; Teresa Heinz Kerry; philanthropist Elsie Hillman; PBS President Pat Mitchell; Arthur creator Marc Brown; and Eric Carle, the author-illustrator of The Very Hungry Caterpillar.[10] Speakers remembered Rogers' love of children, devotion to his religion, enthusiasm for music, and quirks. Teresa Heinz Kerry said of Rogers, "He never condescended, just invited us into his conversation. He spoke to us as the people we were, not as the people others wished we were."[63]

Following Rogers' death, the U.S. House of Representatives in 2003 unanimously passed Resolution 111 honoring Rogers for "his legendary service to the improvement of the lives of children, his steadfast commitment to demonstrating the power of compassion, and his dedication to spreading kindness through example."[64] The U.S. Senate unanimously passed Resolution 16 to commemorate the life of Fred Rogers. It read, in part, "Through his spirituality and placid nature, Mr. Rogers was able to reach out to our nation's children and encourage each of them to understand the important role they play in their communities and as part of their families. More importantly, he did not shy away from dealing with difficult issues of death and divorce but rather encouraged children to express their emotions in a healthy, constructive manner, often providing a simple answer to life's hardships."[65]

The same year, the Presbyterian Church approved an overture "to observe a memorial time for the Reverend Fred M. Rogers" at its General Assembly. The rationale for the recognition of Rogers reads, "The Reverend Fred Rogers, a member of the Presbytery of Pittsburgh, as host of Mister Rogers' Neighborhood since 1968, had a profound effect on the lives of millions of people across the country through his ministry to children and families. Mister Rogers promoted and supported Christian values in the public media with his demonstration of unconditional love. His ability to communicate with children and to help them understand and deal with difficult questions in their lives will be greatly missed."[66]

One of Rogers' iconic sweaters was acquired by the Smithsonian Institution, which displays it as a "Treasure of American History."[67] In 2008, to mark what would have been his 80th birthday, Rogers' production company sponsored several events to memorialize him, including "Won't You Wear a Sweater Day," during which fans and neighbors were asked to wear their favorite sweaters in celebration. The event takes place annually on his birth date, March 20.[68]

On June 25, 2016, the Fred Rogers Historical Marker was placed near Latrobe, Pennsylvania in his memory.[69]

In January 2018, it was announced that Tom Hanks would portray Rogers in an upcoming biographical film titled You Are My Friend directed by Marielle Heller.[70] That same year, the biographical documentary Won't You Be My Neighbor? based on the life and legacy of Rogers, was released to critical acclaim and became the highest grossing biodoc film of all time.[71]

Awards and honors

Rogers received more than 40 honorary degrees from universities, colleges, and seminaries, including Yale University, Hobart and William Smith, Carnegie Mellon University, Boston University, Saint Vincent College, University of Pittsburgh, North Carolina State University, University of Connecticut, Dartmouth College, Waynesburg College, and his alma mater, Rollins College,[72] as well as Thiel College, Eastern Michigan University, Christian Theological Seminary, Lafayette College, Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, and others.[73]

Rogers received the Ralph Lowell Award in 1975.[74] The television industry honored Rogers with a Peabody Award "in recognition of 25 years of beautiful days in the neighborhood" in 1992;[75] Previously, he had shared a Peabody award for Mister Rogers' Neighborhood in 1968.

In 1991, the Pittsburgh Penguins named Rogers as their celebrity captain, as part of a celebration of the National Hockey League's 75th anniversary, based on his connections to Pennsylvania and Pittsburgh. Card No. 297 from the 1992 NHL Pro Set Platinum collection commemorated the event, making Fred one of only twelve celebrity captains to be chosen for a sports card.[76]

Rogers was inducted into the Television Hall of Fame in 1999.[77] In 2002, Rogers received the PNC Commonwealth Award in Mass Communications.[78]

Rogers being presented the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President George W. Bush in the East Room of the White House on July 9, 2002

George W. Bush awarded Rogers the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2002 for his contributions to children's education, saying that "Fred Rogers has proven that television can soothe the soul and nurture the spirit and teach the very young." In 2003, the asteroid 26858 Misterrogers was named after Rogers by the International Astronomical Union in an announcement at the Carnegie Science Center in Pittsburgh.[79]

Several buildings, monuments, and works of art are dedicated to Rogers' memory. The Fred Rogers Memorial Statue on the North Shore near Heinz Field in Pittsburgh was created by Robert Berks and dedicated in 2009.[80]

In 2015, players of the Altoona Curve, a Double-A affiliate of the Pittsburgh Pirates, honored Rogers by wearing special commemorative jerseys that featured a printed facsimile of his classic cardigan and tie ensemble. After the game the jerseys were auctioned off with the proceeds going to the local PBS station, WPSU-TV.[81]

On March 6, 2018, a primetime special commemorating the 50th anniversary of the series aired on PBS, hosted by actor Michael Keaton.[82] The hour-long special also featured interviews by musician Yo-Yo Ma, musician Itzhak Perlman, actress Sarah Silverman, actress Whoopi Goldberg, actor John Lithgow, screenwriter Judd Apatow, actor David Newell, producer Ellen Doherty, and spouse Joanne Byrd Rogers, as well as clips of memorable moments from the show, such as Rogers visiting Koko the gorilla, Margaret Hamilton dressing up as The Wizard of Oz's Wicked Witch of the West, and Jeff Erlanger in his wheelchair singing It's You I Like with Rogers.[83]

Fred Rogers appeared on a commemorative US postage stamp in 2018. The stamp, showing him as Mister Rogers alongside King Friday XIII, was issued on March 23, 2018, in Pittsburgh.[84]

Works

Rogers wrote many of the songs that were used on his television program, and wrote more than 36 books, including:

  • Mister Rogers Talks with Parents (1983)
  • Eight New Experiences titles:
    • Moving
    • Going to the Doctor
    • Going to the Hospital
    • Going to Day Care
    • Going to the Potty
    • Making Friends
    • The New Baby
    • When a Pet Dies
  • You Are Special: Words of Wisdom from America's Most Beloved Neighbor (1994)

Published Posthumously

  • The World According to Mister Rogers: Important Things to Remember (2003)
  • Life's Journeys According to Mister Rogers: Things to Remember Along the Way (2005)
  • Many Ways to Say I Love You: Wisdom for Parents and Children from Mister Rogers (2006)

Notes

  1. Beth J. Harpaz, Mister Rogers: 'Won't you be my neighbor?' fans can check out Fred Rogers Trail Burlington Free Press, July 18, 2018. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Early Life Fred Rogers Center for Early Learning & Children's Media. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
  3. Elaine Woo, It's a Sad Day in This Neighborhood LA Time, February 28, 2003. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
  4. Maxwell King, The Good Neighbor: The Life and Work of Fred Rogers (Abrams Press, 2018, ISBN 978-1419727726).
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Joyce DeFrancesco, Remembering Fred Rogers: A Life Well-Lived: A look back at Fred Rogers' life Pittsburgh Magazine, April 2003. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Anthony Breznican, 7 items that tell the story of Mister Rogers, America’s favorite neighbor Entertainment, June 9, 2018. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
  7. Joseph A. Comm, Legendary Locals of Latrobe (Arcadia Publishing, 2015, ISBN 978-1467101844).
  8. Bobby Davis, Fred McFeely Rogers (1928-2003): Our Favorite Neighbor The Rollins Alumni Record, Summer 2003. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
  9. Barbara Vancheri, As promised, Joanne Rogers is doing 'fine' Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, December 25, 2003. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Barbara Vancheri and Rob Owen, Pittsburgh bids farewell to Fred Rogers with moving public tribute Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 4, 2003. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
  11. Ann Rodgers-Melnick, Liberal pastor retires after long run in city Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 4, 2003. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Tom Junod, Can You Say ... 'Hero'? Esquire, November 1998. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Rob Owen and Barbara Vancheri, Fred Rogers dies at 74 Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, February 28, 2003. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
  14. Rose Parade Grand Marshals, 2003 Tournament of Roses, 2004. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
  15. Daniel Lewis, Fred Rogers, Host of 'Mister Rogers' Neighborhood,' Dies at 74 The New York Times, February 28, 2003. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
  16. Maxwell King, The Good Neighbor: The Life and Work of Fred Rogers (Abrams Press, 2018, ISBN 978-1419727726).
  17. Joanne Rogers Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
  18. Anya Sostek, Mr. Rogers takes rightful place at riverside tribute Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, November 6, 2009. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
  19. Joyce Millman, Salon Brilliant Careers: Fred Rogers Salon, August 10, 1999. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
  20. Paul Hendrickson, In the Land of Make Believe, The Real Mister Rogers The Washington Post, November 18, 1982. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
  21. Early Years in Television Fred Rogers Center for Early Learning & Children's Media. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
  22. John Tiech, Pittsburgh Film History: On Set in the Steel City (History Press, 2012, ISBN 978-1540207333).
  23. Sunday on the Children's Corner, Revisited Presbyterian Historical Society, February 15, 2018. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
  24. 24.0 24.1 Fred Rogers Biography Fred Rogers Productions. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
  25. Sally Ann Flecker, When Fred Met Margaret Pitt Med, Winter 2014. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
  26. 26.0 26.1 I. Broughton, Producers on Producing: The Making of Film and Television (McFarland, 1986, ISBN 978-0786412075).
  27. Soraya Roberts,The Fred Rogers We Know Hazlitt, June 26, 2018. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
  28. 28.0 28.1 Don Gillmor, How Mr. Rogers and Mr. Dressup’s road trip from Pittsburgh to Toronto changed children’s television forever National Post, July 13, 2018. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
  29. Mister Rogers' Neighborhood and Beyond Fred Rogers Center for Early Learning & Children's Media. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
  30. 30.0 30.1 Kathy M. Jackson, Revisiting Mister Rogers' Neighborhood: Essays on Lessons About Self and Community (McFarland, 2016, ISBN 978-0786472963).
  31. Colin Bertram, How Fred Rogers Changed Children's Television Biography. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
  32. 32.0 32.1 Filming Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood Johnny Costa Pittsburgh's Legendary Jazz Pianist. Retrieved December 15, 2018.
  33. Ron Hart, The Music of Mister Rogers' Neighborhood and Johnny Costa JazzTimes, July 19, 2018. Retrieved December 15, 2018.
  34. Fred Rogers Television Academy Interviews. Retrieved December 15, 2018.
  35. Tom Long, DPTV celebrates 50th anniversary of ‘Mr. Rogers’ Detroit News, February 22, 2018. Retrieved December 15, 2018.
  36. 100 Billionth Crayola Crayon Fred Rogers Center for Early Learning & Children's Media. Retrieved December 15, 2018.
  37. Mark Collins and Margaret Mary Kimmel (eds.), Mister Rogers Neighborhood: Children Television And Fred Rogers (University of Pittsburgh Press, 1996, ISBN 978-0822939214).
  38. Fred Rogers, Dear Mr. Rogers, Does It Ever Rain in Your Neighborhood?: Letters to Mr. Rogers (Penguin Publishing Group, 1996, ISBN 978-1101161692).
  39. Nick Scalera, Mister Rogers Comes to Washington Boundary Stones: WETA's Washington DC History Blog, February 27, 2018. Retrieved December 17, 2018.
  40. Oleg Kagan, What Mr. Roger's Neighborhood and Libraries Have in Common Medium, June 30, 2018. Retrieved December 17, 2018.
  41. Rob Owen, There goes the Neighborhood: Mister Rogers will make last episodes of show in December Pittsburgh Post-Gazette Magazine, November 12, 2000. Retrieved December 17, 2018.
  42. Ron Hart, 'Mister Rogers' Neighborhood' at 50: Collaborators & Children's Singers Talk About His Musical Impact Billboard, February 23, 2018. Retrieved December 17, 2018.
  43. Tom Meek, 'Won't You Be My Neighbor?' Frames Mr. Rogers As A Man On A Mission WBUR, June 5, 2018. Retrieved December 17, 2018.
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References

  • Broughton, I. Producers on Producing: The Making of Film and Television. McFarland, 1986. ISBN 978-0786412075
  • Collins, Mark, and Margaret Mary Kimmel (eds.). Mister Rogers Neighborhood: Children Television And Fred Rogers. University of Pittsburgh Press, 1996. ISBN 978-0822939214
  • Comm, Joseph A. Legendary Locals of Latrobe. Arcadia Publishing, 2015. ISBN 978-1467101844
  • Jackson, Kathy M. Revisiting Mister Rogers' Neighborhood: Essays on Lessons About Self and Community. McFarland, 2016. ISBN 978-0786472963
  • King, Maxwell. The Good Neighbor: The Life and Work of Fred Rogers. Abrams Press, 2018. ISBN 978-1419727726
  • Rogers, Fred. Dear Mr. Rogers, Does It Ever Rain in Your Neighborhood?: Letters to Mr. Rogers. Penguin Publishing Group, 1996. ISBN 978-1101161692
  • Tiech, John. Pittsburgh Film History: On Set in the Steel City. History Press, 2012. ISBN 978-1540207333

External links

All links retrieved December 21, 2018.

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